Moxibustion or “moxa” is the burning of mugwort (Artemesia Argyi) over the surface of the skin, on the end of a needle, or directly on the skin with some sort of insulative medium. Moxa application may be either smoking or smokeless. Smoking moxa uses dried and refined mugwort, while smokeless moxa uses charcoalized mugwort. This particular herb is used because it has a very consistent and specific burning temperature. Moxa can be used to add or remove energy from the system, and to either heat or cool (counter-intuitively) various aspects of the body. Andrew utilizes smokeless moxa almost exclusively.